Before you ask, rambunctious means difficult, hard to deal with – as in children and – nature.It’s an Americanism. Don’t be put off if you’re in the UK, this is interesting stuff.
With thanks to Catharine Howard.
Anne Wareham, editor
Emma Marris writes about nature and ecology for several prestigious American magazines – ‘Nature’ for one. Her book Rambunctious Garden came out in 2011 and I am sitting looking at my paperback copy which has a mullein flowering on a railway siding that leads to a dismal urban waterfront. This and the sub-title “Saving Nature in a Post-wild World” sets out her stall. Flick to the back and bibliography is stiff with the big guns of ecological research. It’s no flighty whimsy of a book. She has a degree in Science writing and a portfolio of interesting articles: the effects of the reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone park being a recent one.
Rambunctious Garden has a two fold mission. The second is what it says on the tin – the saving nature bit. (and wonderfully optimistic that is) First up is Marris’s argument to show the reader how nature has forever been in flux and change and for millennia man has had a part in this too. In the last 150 years affluence has added a self conscious element to the human side of things with a creed developed to save the world – and that is where Yellowstone comes in. Along with John Muir.
Yellowstone covers 3,472 miles of Wyoming. It has geysers, hot springs, canyons and forest. Home to elk, bears, bison, wolves and antelope and long horn sheep. It is wild and empty and was made made a national park in 1872. I must explain John Muir- Scottish emigre, writer, “prophet of environmental awareness” (1838-1914.) He has quite a bit to answer for – as America opened up and the Wild West disappeared, nature and “pristine wilderness’ began to lodge in national sentiment with a quasi religious fervour. Muir thundered that the Miwok should be removed from Yosemite and Yellowstone kept empty. Americans reached for the baseline of the state of the land when the first Europeans arrived.
This, as Marris points out, was arbitrary. By archeological reckoning the two Americas had a population of 112 million, pre Columbus’s arrival. European disease, smallpox in the main, wiped out 95% of the inhabitants. The shape and stretch of the vegetation had changed several times, more of that below. However ‘pristine wilderness’ took a grip and the Yellowstone model of an empty land became the ideal for nature preservation.
The US exported this philosophy to other countries and it was used to wrest lands from people with few rights and weak voices. 1948 saw the World Wildlife Fund set up and the process of removing marginal people has scythed its way into the 21st century. The indigenous peoples of Arba Minch, Ethiopia, were being relocated only 10 years back. The conflict of interest between pastoralists and tourism has tightened like a drumskin.
This presupposes nature is in balance without man. The text book idea of succession leading to climax vegetation is as realistic as ballet without movement. What we have instead is predictable cycles that are swamped by sheer randomness. “The only constant in nature is change itself”. (Heraclitus)
The book begins with the description of Scotia Sanctuary in Oz. In this place a furry collection of nearly extinct marsupials are kept alive behind a wire fence. All predators have been shot to blithereens and a warden is on the prowl to keep them alive within. These animals are only going to survive with the ceaseless prowling of their gun-toting steward.
From there she skips to Hawaii and sad patches of forest plants, hand weeded with dedication to stop the exotics or aliens overtaking their patch.
These modern human attempts at repelling ecological stochasticity – the randomness of change – are Canute-like. Marris draws on examples from pollen research. By this method, plant movement can be traced over several glaciations and a picture of constant flux emerges with plant species adapting and evolving.
If we go back 13,000 years Rambuctious Garden gives a historical sweep of man’s influence on the planet. America way back was pretty different. There was a mega fauna of giant sloths, giant tortoises and all the pantheon of creatures familiar to us from Africa. These all died out 13,000 years ago. The hypothesis is that they were hunted to extinction by Clovis people who had enormous spears and very big appetites. The removal of these animals meant that savannah turned to forest. The pirouette between man and nature goes on, with current hand-wringing over global warming, exotic plant and animal species, whether to move vulnerable species or reintroduce predators. Invasive species arriving in rootballs, disease spreading through imported nursery stock have all us gardeners gasping and stretching our eyes. But there is hope.
Marris concludes the book with ‘the gestalt switch” – for this I reached for a dictionary. This emphasises personal responsibility and focuses on the individual’s present experience. Mindfulness, if you will. Stop yearning about the large (and non existent) tracts of pristine wilderness and see nature all around you. That done, nature is truly all about and every scrap of land, derelict or cultivated can harbour pollinating insects, beneficial microbes, flowers, birds. Industrial sites, roofs – you name it. She throws in a plea for corridors in agricultural lands (essential for migration of even the smallest insect). Oh and while you are at it stop mowing your lawn.
I read this book fast, enjoyed it and put it down with a buoyant sense that all is not over with our planet. There was a good deal in the historic content that was news to me – it has always puzzled me that the African continent has such a weird fauna and I had no idea before reading Marris’s book that it was so widespread. I’ve had a pretty good check on-line and the fantastical Mega Fauna really did exist.
The other revelation was to find conservationists at such loggerheads over the ethics of rewilding beasts and moving plants around to get them out of the zone where they can no longer survive due to the heating up of the globe. Marris’s geographical range sweeps over the atlas – for my uneducated part I could really have done with maps and some good illustrations of the wonders of Yosemite, Yellowstone et all.
Lastly, there were a few other things things that I thought were missing for someone in the UK. No mention of the horrors of Chalara fraxinia (ash dieback), oak processionary moth or the scare of Asian longbeetle hitching a lift in. On the human front, the change to the Norfolk Broads wrought by men (and monks at that) probably would not get onto the US radar but worth a mention. It would have been good to have had some development of the theme of ecological land grab, since the victims of this are usually pastoralist peoples. They have an unusual care of the land’s resources and courtesy to it.
Finally in her last chapter she serves up the necessity of planting natives. (sorry Dr Ben Pitcher) – I just don’t buy into this. Sheffield’s BUG project proves that pollinators do not make the distinction between which flower is or isn’t. (Might be different in America. ed.)
Catharine Howard Blog